This question has been asked since the movie The Passion of the Christ. The question does not have one single answer, but a multitude of answers.
Let’s first define death. Death is the separation of body and spirit. “The body without the spirit is dead.” James 2:26.
So the question becomes, “Who took the spirit of Jesus?” Luke 23:46 states, “Jesus called out with a loud voice, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.’ When he had said this, He breathed his last.” So the first answer is that no one killed Jesus; He gave up His spirit on His own.
Now we must examine who was responsible for hanging Jesus on the cross?
1. Judas, a disciple, betrayed Him with a kiss. Matthew 26:49
2. The priest plotted to have Jesus killed. Matthew 26:3,4 states, “Then the chief priests and the elders of the people assembled in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and they plotted to arrest Jesus in some sly way and kill him.”
3. The Jewish crowd asked for Barabbas to be released instead of Jesus. Matthew 27:15-25 states, “[W]hen the crowd had gathered, Pilate asked them, ‘Which one do you want me to release to you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?’ ‘What shall I do, then, with Jesus who is called Christ?’ Pilate asked. They all answered, ‘Crucify him!’ ‘Why? What crime has he committed?’ asked Pilate. But they shouted all the louder, ‘Crucify him!’ Pilate said, ‘I am innocent of this man’s blood.’ ‘It is your responsibility!’ All the people answered, ‘Let His blood be on us and on our children!’”
4. The Roman soldiers were the ones who physically nailed Jesus to the cross.
5. The final answer is that our sins put Jesus on the cross.